What is the standard for digital certificates?

Last Updated on July 31, 2021 by Admin

What is the standard for digital certificates?

  • IEEE 802.3af
  • IEEE 802.11
  • X.509
  • X.500
The standard for digital certificates is X.509. These text documents include identifying information of the holder, the most important being the public key of the holder.

X.500 is the standards for directory services.

Power over Ethernet (PoE) is defined by the IEEE 802.3af and 802.3at standards. PoE allows an Ethernet switch to provide power to an attached device by applying power to the same wires in a UTP cable that are used to transmit and receive data. PoE+ is an enhanced version of PoE that provides more power and better reliability. PoE+ is most commonly deployed in enterprise networks, while PoE is usually sufficient for small business or home networks.

The IEEE 802.11 standard, which is the main standard for wireless LANs (WLANs), specifies using Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) for its media access method. Like an Ethernet network, which uses Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection (CSMA/CD), wireless adapter cards “sense”, or listen, for network traffic before transmitting. If the network is free of traffic, the station will send its data. The 802.22 standard also refers to CSMA/CA as Distributed Coordination Function (DCF).

However, unlike an Ethernet network, wireless network cards cannot send and receive transmissions at the same time, which means that they cannot detect a collision. Instead, the sending station will wait for an acknowledgement packet (ACK) to be sent by the destination computer, verifying that the data was received. If, after a random amount of time, an acknowledgement has not been received, the sending station will retransmit the data.

Objective: Cryptography
Sub-Objective: Describe these items in regards to SSL/TLS: Cipher-suite, X.509 certificates, Key exchange, Protocol version, PKCS

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