Last Updated on March 26, 2022 by Admin 2
CAPM : Certified Associate in Project Management (PMI-100) : Part 13
The process of defining how the project scope will be validated and controlled is known as:
- Define Scope.
- Develop Project Management Plan.
- Plan Scope Management.
- Plan Quality Management.
Process: 5.1 Plan Scope Management
Definition: The process of creating a scope management plan that documents how the project scope will be defined, validated, and controlled.
Key Benefit: The key benefit of this process is that it provides guidance and direction on how scope will be managed throughout the project.
1. Project management plan
2. Project charter
3. Enterprise environmental factors
4. Organizational process assets
Tools & Techniques
1. Expert judgment
1. Scope management plan
2. Requirements management plan
Technical capability, past performance, and intellectual property rights are examples of:
- performance measurement criteria
- source selection criteria
- product acceptance criteria
- phase exit criteria
The methodology that combines scope, schedule, and resource measurements to assess project performance and progress is known as:
- Earned value management.
- Critical chain methodology.
- Critical path methodology.
184.108.40.206 Earned Value Management
Earned value management (EVM) is a methodology that combines scope, schedule, and resource measurements to assess project performance and progress. It is a commonly used method of performance measurement for projects. It integrates the scope baseline with the cost baseline, along with the schedule baseline, to form the performance measurement baseline, which helps the project management team assess and measure project performance and progress. It is a project management technique that requires the formation of an integrated baseline against which performance can be measured for the duration of the project.
Which process is usually a rapid and cost-effective means of establishing priorities for Plan Risk Responses?
- Identify Risks
- Plan Risk Management
- Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis
- Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis
Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis assesses the priority of identified risks using their relative probability or likelihood of occurrence, the corresponding impact on project objectives if the risks occur, as well as other factors such as the time frame for response and the organization’s risk tolerance associated with the project constraints of cost, schedule, scope, and quality. Such assessments reﬂect the risk attitude of the project team and other stakeholders. Effective assessment therefore requires explicit identification and management of the risk approaches of key participants in the Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis process. Where these risk
approaches introduce bias into the assessment of identified risks, attention should be paid to identifying bias and correcting for it.
Establishing definitions of the levels of probability and impact can reduce the inﬂuence of bias. The time criticality of risk-related actions may magnify the importance of a risk. An evaluation of the quality of the available information on project risks also helps to clarify the assessment of the risk’s importance to the project.
Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis is usually a rapid and cost-effective means of establishing priorities for Plan Risk Responses and lays the foundation for Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis, if required. The Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis process is performed regularly throughout the project life cycle, as defined in the project’s risk management plan. This process can lead into Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis (Section 11.4) or directly into Plan Risk Responses (Section 11.5).
Process: 11.3 Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis
Definition: The process of prioritizing risks for further analysis or action by assessing and combining their probability of occurrence and impact.
Key Benefit: The key benefit of this process is that it enables project managers to reduce the level of uncertainty and to focus on high-priority risks.
1. Risk management plan
2. Scope baseline
3. Risk register
4. Enterprise environmental factors
5. Organizational process assets
Tools & Techniques
1. Risk probability and impact assessment
2. Probability and impact matrix
3. Risk data quality assessment
4. Risk categorization
5. Risk urgency assessment
6. Expert judgment
1. Project documents updates
A special type of bar chart used in sensitivity analysis for comparing the relative importance of the variables is called a:
- triangular distribution
- tornado diagram
- beta distribution
- fishbone diagram
220.127.116.11 Quantitative Risk Analysis and Modeling Techniques page 337
Commonly used techniques use both event-oriented and project-oriented analysis approaches, including:
• Sensitivity analysis. Sensitivity analysis helps to determine which risks have the most potential impact on the project. It helps to understand how the variations in project’s objectives correlate with variations in different uncertainties. Conversely, it examines the extent to which the uncertainty of each project element affects the objective being studied when all other uncertain elements are held at their baseline values. One typical display of sensitivity analysis is the tornado diagram (Figure 11-15), which is useful for comparing relative importance and impact of variables that have a high degree of uncertainty to those that are more stable.
The Tornado diagram is also helpful in analyzing risk-taking scenarios enabled on specific risks whose quantitative analysis highlights possible benefits greater than corresponding identified negative impacts. A tornado diagram is a special type of bar chart used in sensitivity analysis for comparing the relative importance of the variables. In a tornado diagram, the Y-axis contains each type of uncertainty at base values, and the X-axis contains the spread or correlation of the uncertainty to the studied output. In this figure, each uncertainty contains a horizontal bar and is ordered vertically to show uncertainties with a decreasing spread from the base values.
A full-time project manager with low to moderate authority and part-time administrative staff is working in an organizational structure with which type of matrix?
Project managers have the highest level of power and authority in a projectized organization. They also have high levels of power and authority in a strong matrix; however, a matrix organization is a blend of functional and projectized organizations, and therefore, the project manager does not have quite the same level of authority as they would in a projectized organization.
Project Scope Management is primarily concerned with:
- Developing a detailed description of the project and product.
- Determining how requirements will be analyzed, documented, and managed.
- Defining and controlling what is and is not included in the project.
- Formalizing acceptance of the completed project deliverables.
Project Scope Management
Project Scope Management includes the processes required to ensure that the project includes all the work required, and only the work required, to complete the project successfully. Managing the project scope is primarily concerned with defining and controlling what is and is not included in the project.
For a stakeholder with low interest and high power, the project manager should:
- Monitor the stakeholder.
- Manage the stakeholder closely.
- Keep the stakeholder satisfied.
- Keep the stakeholder informed.
In a typical project, project managers spend most of their time:
When closing a project or phase, part of the process may require the use of which type of analysis?
- Reserve analysis
- Regression analysis
- Document analysis
- Product analysis
Regression Analysis. An analytic technique where a series of input variables are examined in relation to their corresponding output results in order to develop a mathematical or statistical relationship.
18.104.22.168 Analytical Techniques
Analytical techniques are applied in project management to forecast potential outcomes based on possible variations of project or environmental variables and their relationships with other variables. Examples of analytical techniques used in projects are:
– Grouping methods,
– Causal analysis,
– Root cause analysis,
– Forecasting methods (e.g., time series, scenario building, simulation, etc.),
– Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA),
– Fault tree analysis (FTA),
– Reserve analysis,
– Trend analysis,
– Earned value management, and
– Variance analysis.
Which schedule method allows the project team to place buffers on the project schedule path to account for limited resources and project uncertainties?
- Critical path method
- Critical chain method
- Resource leveling
- Schedule network analysis
22.214.171.124 Critical Chain Method
The critical chain method (CCM) is a schedule method that allows the project team to place buffers on any project schedule path to account for limited resources and project uncertainties. It is developed from the critical path method approach and considers the effects of resource allocation, resource optimization, resource leveling, and activity duration uncertainty on the critical path determined using the critical path method. To do so, the critical chain method introduces the concept of buffers and buffer management. The critical chain method uses activities with durations that do not include safety margins, logical relationships, and resource availability with statistically determined buffers composed of the aggregated safety margins of activities at specified points on the project schedule path to account for limited resources and project uncertainties. The resource-constrained critical path is known as the critical chain.
The critical chain method adds duration buffers that are non-work schedule activities to manage uncertainty.
One buffer, placed at the end of the critical chain, as shown in Figure 6-19, is known as the project buffer and protects the target finish date from slippage along the critical chain. Additional buffers, known as feeding buffers, are placed at each point where a chain of dependent activities that are not on the critical chain feeds into the critical chain. Feeding buffers thus protect the critical chain from slippage along the feeding chains. The size of each buffer should account for the uncertainty in the duration of the chain of dependent activities leading up to that buffer. Once the buffer schedule activities are determined, the planned activities are scheduled to their latest possible planned start and finish dates. Consequently, instead of managing the total float of network paths, the critical chain method focuses on managing the remaining buffer durations against the remaining durations of chains of activities.
Figure 6-19. Example of Critical Chain Method
The lowest level normally depicted in a work breakdown structure (VVBS) is called a/an:
- work package
The scope management plan and scope baseline are contained in:
- organizational process assets
- a requirements traceability matrix
- the project charter
- the project management plan
126.96.36.199 Scope Baseline
The scope baseline is the approved version of a scope statement, work breakdown structure (WBS), and its associated WBS dictionary, that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison. It is a component of the project management plan. Components of the scope baseline include:
– Project scope statement. The project scope statement includes the description of the project scope, major deliverables, assumptions, and constraints.
– WBS. The WBS is a hierarchical decomposition of the total scope of work to be carried out by the project team to accomplish the project objectives and create the required deliverables. Each descending level of the WBS represents an increasingly detailed definition of the project work. The WBS is finalized by assigning each work package to a control account and establishing a unique identifier for that work package from a code of accounts. These identifiers provide a structure for hierarchical summation of costs, schedule, and resource information. A control account is a management control point where scope, budget, actual cost, and schedule are integrated and compared to the earned value for performance measurement. Control accounts are placed at selected management points in the WBS. Each control account may include one or more work packages, but each of the work packages should be associated with only one control account. A control account may include one or more planning packages. A planning package is a work breakdown structure component below the control account with known work content but without detailed schedule activities.
– WBS dictionary. The WBS dictionary is a document that provides detailed deliverable, activity, and scheduling information about each component in the WBS. The WBS dictionary is a document that supports the WBS. Information in the WBS dictionary may include, but is not limited to:
○ Code of account identifier,
○ Description of work,
○ Assumptions and constraints,
○ Responsible organization,
○ Schedule milestones,
○ Associated schedule activities,
○ Resources required,
○ Cost estimates,
○ Quality requirements,
○ Acceptance criteria,
○ Technical references, and
○ Agreement information
188.8.131.52 Project Management Plan
The project management plan is the document that describes how the project will be executed, monitored, and controlled. It integrates and consolidates all of the subsidiary plans and baselines from the planning processes.
Project baselines include, but are not limited to:
– Scope baseline (Section 184.108.40.206),
– Schedule baseline (Section 220.127.116.11), and
– Cost baseline (Section 18.104.22.168).
Subsidiary plans include, but are not limited to:
– Scope management plan (Section 22.214.171.124),
– Requirements management plan (Section 126.96.36.199),
– Schedule management plan (Section 188.8.131.52),
– Cost management plan (Section 184.108.40.206),
– Quality management plan (Section 220.127.116.11),
– Process improvement plan (Section 18.104.22.168),
– Human resource management plan (Section 22.214.171.124),
– Communications management plan (Section 10.1.3.1),
– Risk management plan (Section 126.96.36.199),
– Procurement management plan (Section 188.8.131.52), and
– Stakeholder management plan (Section 184.108.40.206).
Among other things, the project management plan may also include the following:
– Life cycle selected for the project and the processes that will be applied to each phase;
– Details of the tailoring decisions specified by the project management team as follows:
○ Project management processes selected by the project management team,
○ Level of implementation for each selected process,
○ Descriptions of the tools and techniques to be used for accomplishing those processes, and
○ Description of how the selected processes will be used to manage the specific project, including the dependencies and interactions among those processes and the essential inputs and outputs.
– Description of how work will be executed to accomplish the project objectives;
– Change management plan that documents how changes will be monitored and controlled;
– Configuration management plan that documents how Configuration management will be performed;
– Description of how the integrity of the project baselines will be maintained;
– Requirements and techniques for communication among stakeholders; and
– Key management reviews for content, the extent of, and timing to address, open issues and pending decisions.
The project management plan may be either summary level or detailed, and may be composed of one or more subsidiary plans. Each of the subsidiary plans is detailed to the extent required by the specific project. Once the project management plan is baselined, it may only be changed when a change request is generated and approved through the Perform Integrated Change Control process.
Which Manage Communications tool or technique focuses on identifying and managing barriers?
- Communication methods
- Information technology
- Communication models
- Information management systems
10.1.2.3 Communication Models
The communication models used to facilitate communications and the exchange of information may vary from
project to project and also within different stages of the same project. [..]. Medium is the technology medium and includes the mode of communication while noise includes any interference or barriers that might compromise the delivery of the message. The sequence of steps in a basic communication model is:
– Encode. Thoughts or ideas are translated (encoded) into language by the sender.
– Transmit Message. This information is then sent by the sender using communication channel (medium). The transmission of this message may be compromised by various factors (e.g., distance, unfamiliar technology, inadequate infrastructure, cultural difference, and lack of background information). These factors are collectively termed as noise.
– Decode. The message is translated by the receiver back into meaningful thoughts or ideas.
– Acknowledge. Upon receipt of a message, the receiver may signal (acknowledge) receipt of the message but this does not necessarily mean agreement with or comprehension of the message.
– Feedback/Response. When the received message has been decoded and understood, the receiver encodes thoughts and ideas into a message and then transmits this message to the original sender.
Process: 10.2 Manage Communications
Definition: The process of creating, collecting, distributing, storing, retrieving and the ultimate disposition of project information in accordance with the communications management plan.
Key Benefit: The key benefit of this process is that it enables an efficient and effective communications flow between project stakeholders.
1. Communications management plan
2. Work performance reports
3. Enterprise environmental factors
4. Organizational process assets
Tools & Techniques
1. Communication technology
2. Communication models
3. Communication methods
4. Information management systems
5. Performance reporting
1. Project communications
2. Project management plan updates
3. Project documents updates
4. Organizational process assets updates
Which type of organizational structure is displayed in the diagram provided?
- Balanced matrix
- Strong matrix
Outputs of the Control Communications process include:
- expert judgment and change requests.
- work performance information and change requests.
- organizational process asset updates and an issue log.
- project management plan updates and an issue log.
220.127.116.11 Work Performance Information
Work performance information is the performance data collected from various controlling processes, analyzed in context, and integrated based on relationships across areas. Thus work performance data has been transformed into work performance information. Data in itself cannot be used in the decision-making process as it has only out-of-context meaning. Work performance information, however, is correlated and contextualized, and provides a sound foundation for project decisions.
Work performance information is circulated through communication processes. Examples of performance information are status of deliverables, implementation status for change requests, and forecasted estimates to complete.
18.104.22.168 Issue Log
Issues arise in the course of managing the project team. An issue log can be used to document and monitor who is responsible for resolving specific issues by a target date.
In the Plan Procurement Management process, which source selection criteria analyzes if the seller’s proposed technical methodologies, techniques, solutions, and services meet the procurement documents requirements?
- Technical approach
- Technical capability
- Business size and type
- Production capacity and interest
22.214.171.124 Procurement Documents
Procurement documents are used to solicit proposals from prospective sellers. Terms such as bid, tender, or quotation are generally used when the seller selection decision will be based on price (as when buying commercial or standard items), while a term such as proposal is generally used when other considerations, such as technical capability or technical approach are paramount. Common terms are in use for different types of procurement documents and may include request for information (RFI), invitation for bid (IFB), request for proposal (RFP), request for quotation (RFQ), tender notice, invitation for negotiation, and invitation for seller’s initial response. Specific procurement terminology used may vary by industry and location of the procurement.
The buyer structures procurement documents to facilitate an accurate and complete response from each prospective seller and to facilitate easy evaluation of the responses. These documents include a description of the desired form of the response, the relevant procurement statement of work (SOW) and any required contractual provisions. With government contracting, some or all of the content and structure of procurement documents may be defined by regulation.
The complexity and level of detail of the procurement documents should be consistent with the value of, and risks associated with, the planned procurement. Procurement documents are required to be sufficient to ensure consistent, appropriate responses, but ﬂexible enough to allow consideration of any seller suggestions for better ways to satisfy the same requirements.
Issuing a procurement request to potential sellers to submit a proposal or bid is normally done in accordance with the policies of the buyer’s organization, which can include publication of the request in public newspapers, in trade journals, in public registries, or on the internet.
Process: 12.1 Plan Procurement Management
Definition: The process of documenting project procurement decisions, specifying the approach, and identifying potential sellers.
Key Benefit: The key benefit of this process is that it determines whether to acquire outside support, and if so, what to acquire, how to acquire it, how much is needed, and when to acquire it.
1. Project management plan
2. Requirements documentation
3. Risk register
4. Activity resource requirements
5. Project schedule
6. Activity cost estimates
7. Stakeholder register
8. Enterprise environmental factors
9. Organizational process assets
Tools & Techniques
1. Make-or-buy analysis
2. Expert judgment
3. Market research
1. Procurement management plan
2. Procurement statement of work
3. Procurement documents
4. Source selection criteria
5. Make-or-buy decisions
6. Change requests
7. Project documents updates
Stakeholder communication requirements should be included as a component of:
- enterprise environmental factors
- organizational process assets
- the project management plan
- the stakeholder register
Which element does a project charter contain?
- Management reserves
- Work breakdown structure
- Stakeholder list
- Stakeholder register
The following is a network diagram for a project.
What is the critical path for the project?