Last Updated on December 13, 2021 by Admin 3

CISA : Certified Information Systems Auditor : Part 66

  1. The objective of using coding standards for systems development is to:

    • facilitate program maintenance.
    • facilitate user testing.
    • ensure the completeness of requirements.
    • ensure that business needs are met.
  2. Which of the following sampling techniques is commonly used in fraud detection when the expected occurrence rate is small and the specific controls are critical?

    • Discovery sampling
    • Monetary unit sampling
    • Stop-or-go sampling
    • Random sampling
  3. The IS auditor of a power company finds that the radio link to a remote mountain site is experiencing systematic outages under specific weather conditions. The communications manager explains that increasing the radio power would require a new license and would help little. What is the MOST appropriate action by the IS auditor?

    • Recommend that the site’s data collection and transmission be non-interruptible.
    • Review the installation license, permissions and associated costs.
    • Recommend that the site’s hardware be upgraded to record data during outages.
    • Gather additional information to identify threats, vulnerabilities, and impact.
  4. Which of the following IS audit findings should be of GREATEST concern when preparing to migrate to a new core system using a direct cut-over?

    • Incomplete test cases for some critical reports
    • Informal management approval to go live
    • Lack of a rollback strategy for the system go-live
    • Plans to use some workarounds for an extended period after go-live
  5. Which of the following attacks could capture network user passwords?

    • Data diddling
    • Sniffing
    • IP Spoofing
    • Surfing

    Explanation:

    A network sniffer captures a copy every packet that traverses the network segment the sniffer is connect to.
    Sniffers are typically devices that can collect information from a communication medium, such as a network. These devices can range from specialized equipment to basic workstations with customized software.

    A sniffer can collect information about most, if not all, attributes of the communication. The most common method of sniffing is to plug a sniffer into an existing network device like a hub or switch. A hub (which is designed to relay all traffic passing through it to all of its ports) will automatically begin sending all the traffic on that network segment to the sniffing device. On the other hand, a switch (which is designed to limit what traffic gets sent to which port) will have to be specially configured to send all traffic to the port where the sniffer is plugged in.

    Another method for sniffing is to use a network tap—a device that literally splits a network transmission into two identical streams; one going to the original network destination and the other going to the sniffing device. Each of these methods has its advantages and disadvantages, including cost, feasibility, and the desire to maintain the secrecy of the sniffing activity.

    The packets captured by sniffer are decoded and then displayed by the sniffer. Therefore, if the username/password are contained in a packet or packets traversing the segment the sniffer is connected to, it will capture and display that information (and any other information on that segment it can see).

    Of course, if the information is encrypted via a VPN, SSL, TLS, or similar technology, the information is still captured and displayed, but it is in an unreadable format.

    The following answers are incorrect:
    Data did dlinginvolves changing data before, as it is entered into a computer, or after it is extracted.

    Spoofing is forging an address and inserting it into a packet to disguise the origin of the communication – or causing a system to respond to the wrong address.

    Surfing would refer to the surf attack, where an attacker sends spoofed packets to the broadcast address on a gateway in order to cause a denial of service.

    Reference:

    CISA Review manual 2014 Page number 321
    Official ISC2 Guide to the CISSP 3rd edition Page Number 153

  6. Most access violations are:

    • Accidental
    • Caused by internal hackers
    • Caused by external hackers
    • Related to Internet
    Explanation:
    The most likely source of exposure is from the uninformed, accidental or unknowing person, although the greatest impact may be from those with malicious or fraudulent intent.
    Reference: Information Systems Audit and Control Association, Certified Information Systems Auditor 2002 review manual, Chapter 4: Protection of Information Assets (page 192).
  7. Which of the following is NOT a component of IPSec?

    • Authentication Header
    • Encapsulating Security Payload
    • Key Distribution Center
    • Internet Key Exchange
    Explanation:
    AH, ESP and IKE are the three main components of IPSec. A KDC (Key Distribution Center) is a component of Kerberos, not IPSec.
    Reference: Information Systems Audit and Control Association, Certified Information Systems Auditor 2002 review manual, Chapter 4: Protection of Information Assets (page 217).
  8. Which of the following statements pertaining to IPSec is incorrect?

    • A security association has to be defined between two IPSec systems in order for bi-directional communication to be established.
    • Integrity and authentication for IP datagrams are provided by AH.
    • ESP provides for integrity, authentication and encryption to IP datagram’s.
    • In transport mode, ESP only encrypts the data payload of each packet.
    Explanation:

    This is incorrect, there would be a pair of Security Association (SA) needed for bi directional communication and NOT only one SA. The sender and the receiver would both negotiate an SA for inbound and outbound connections.

    The two main concepts of IPSec are Security Associations (SA) and tunneling. A Security Association (SA) is a simplex logical connection between two IPSec systems. For bi-directional communication to be established between two IPSec systems, two separate Security Associations, one in each direction, must be defined.

    The security protocols can either be AH or ESP.

    The explanations below are a bit more thorough than what you need to know for the exam. However, they always say a picture is worth one thousand words, I think it is very true when it comes to explaining IPSEC and it’s inner working. I have found a great article from CISCO PRESS and DLINK covering this subject, see references below.

    Tunnel and Transport Modes
    IPSec can be run in either tunnel mode or transport mode. Each of these modes has its own particular uses and care should be taken to ensure that the correct one is selected for the solution:

    Tunnel mode is most commonly used between gateways, or at an end-station to a gateway, the gateway acting as a proxy for the hosts behind it.

    Transport mode is used between end-stations or between an end-station and a gateway, if the gateway is being treated as a host—for example, an encrypted Telnet session from a workstation to a router, in which the router is the actual destination.

    As you can see in the Figure 1 graphic below, basically transport mode should be used for end-to-end sessions and tunnel mode should be used for everything else.
    FIGURE: 1

    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q08 039
    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q08 039

    IPSEC Transport Mode versus Tunnel Mode

    Tunnel and transport modes in IPSec.

    Figure 1 above displays some examples of when to use tunnel versus transport mode:
    Tunnel mode is most commonly used to encrypt traffic between secure IPSec gateways, such as between the Cisco router and PIX Firewall (as shown in example A in Figure 1). The IPSec gateways proxy IPSec for the devices behind them, such as Alice’s PC and the HR servers in Figure 1. In example A, Alice connects to the HR servers securely through the IPSec tunnel set up between the gateways.

    Tunnel mode is also used to connect an end-station running IPSec software, such as the Cisco Secure VPN Client, to an IPSec gateway, as shown in example B.

    In example C, tunnel mode is used to set up an IPSec tunnel between the Cisco router and a server running IPSec software. Note that Cisco IOS software and the PIX Firewall sets tunnel mode as the default IPSec mode.

    Transport mode is used between end-stations supporting IPSec, or between an end-station and a gateway, if the gateway is being treated as a host. In example D, transport mode is used to set up an encrypted Telnet session from Alice’s PC running Cisco Secure VPN Client software to terminate at the PIX Firewall, enabling Alice to remotely configure the PIX Firewall securely.
    FIGURE: 2

    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q08 040
    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q08 040

    IPSEC AH Tunnel and Transport mode

    AH Tunnel Versus Transport Mode
    Figure 2 above, shows the differences that the IPSec mode makes to AH. In transport mode, AH services protect the external IP header along with the data payload. AH services protect all the fields in the header that don’t change in transport. The header goes after the IP header and before the ESP header, if present, and other higher-layer protocols.

    As you can see in Figure 2 above, In tunnel mode, the entire original header is authenticated, a new IP header is built, and the new IP header is protected in the same way as the IP header in transport mode.

    AH is incompatible with Network Address Translation (NAT) because NAT changes the source IP address, which breaks the AH header and causes the packets to be rejected by the IPSec peer.
    FIGURE: 3

    IPSEC ESP Tunnel versus Transport modes

    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q08 041
    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q08 041

    ESP Tunnel Versus Transport Mode
    Figure 3 above shows the differences that the IPSec mode makes to ESP. In transport mode, the IP payload is encrypted and the original headers are left intact. The ESP header is inserted after the IP header and before the upper-layer protocol header. The upper-layer protocols are encrypted and authenticated along with the ESP header. ESP doesn’t authenticate the IP header itself.

    NOTE: Higher-layer information is not available because it’s part of the encrypted payload.

    When ESP is used in tunnel mode, the original IP header is well protected because the entire original IP datagram is encrypted. With an ESP authentication mechanism, the original IP datagram and the ESP header are included; however, the new IP header is not included in the authentication.

    When both authentication and encryption are selected, encryption is performed first, before authentication. One reason for this order of processing is that it facilitates rapid detection and rejection of replayed or bogus packets by the receiving node. Prior to decrypting the packet, the receiver can detect the problem and potentially reduce the impact of denial-of-service attacks.

    ESP can also provide packet authentication with an optional field for authentication. Cisco IOS software and the PIX Firewall refer to this service as ESP hashed message authentication code (HMAC). Authentication is calculated after the encryption is done. The current IPSec standard specifies which hashing algorithms have to be supported as the mandatory HMAC algorithms.

    The main difference between the authentication provided by ESP and AH is the extent of the coverage. Specifically, ESP doesn’t protect any IP header fields unless those fields are encapsulated by ESP (tunnel mode).

    The following were incorrect answers for this question:

    Integrity and authentication for IP datagrams are provided by AH This is correct, AH provides integrity and authentication and ESP provides integrity, authentication and encryption.

    ESP provides for integrity, authentication and encryption to IP datagram’s. ESP provides authentication, integrity, and confidentiality, which protect against data tampering and, most importantly, provide message content protection.

    In transport mode, ESP only encrypts the data payload of each packet. ESP can be operated in either tunnel mode (where the original packet is encapsulated into a new one) or transport mode (where only the data payload of each packet is encrypted, leaving the header untouched).

    Reference:

    Hernandez CISSP, Steven (2012-12-21). Official (ISC)2 Guide to the CISSP CBK, Third Edition ((ISC)2 Press) (Kindle Locations 6986-6989). Acerbic Publications. Kindle Edition.

    and
    http://www.ciscopress.com/articles/article.asp?p=25477

    and
    http://documentation.netgear.com/reference/sve/vpn/VPNBasics-3-05.html

  9. As an IS auditor it is very important to understand software release management process. Which of the following software release normally contains a significant change or addition of new functionality?

    • Major software Release
    • Minor software Release
    • Emergency software release
    • General software Release
    Explanation:

    A major release usually introduces new capabilities or functions. Major releases may accumulate all the changes from previous minor releases. Major releases advance the version number by a full increment, for example, from version 5.70 to version 6.

    For CISA exam you should know below information about software release management:

    Software Release Management is the process of ensuring releases can be reliably planned, scheduled and successfully transitioned (deployed) to Test and Live Environments. Software Release Management is not just about “automating the path to production” although that is certainly an important part. It also about adopting a holistic view of application changes, using the “Release” as the container to ensure that changes are packaged, released and tested in a repeatable and controlled manner.

    Release Management is often likened to the conductor of an orchestra, with the individual changes to be implemented the various instruments within it. Software Release Management is intrinsically linked with the more well understood and adopted Software Change and Configuration Management disciplines.

    Software Release management is a process through which software is made available to user. Each update or upgrade of a Configuration Item is referred to as a release.

    There are three levels of releases. These levels related to releasing hardware or software into your IT infrastructure. Some may be a single change, others may implement many changes at a time.
    Major – A major release usually introduces new capabilities or functions. Major releases may accumulate all the changes from previous minor releases. Major releases advance the version number by a full increment, for example, from version 5.70 to version 6.
    Minor – Minor releases incorporate a number of fixes for known problems into the baseline, or trusted state, of an item. Minor releases usually increment the version number at the first decimal place. For example, version 6.10 would change to version 6.20.

    Emergency – Emergency releases are quick fixes to repair unexpected problems or temporary measures to prevent the interruption of critical services.

    The following were incorrect answers:
    Minor – Minor releases incorporate a number of fixes for known problems into the baseline, or trusted state, of an item. Minor releases usually increment the version number at the first decimal place. For example, version 6.10 would change to version 6.20.

    Emergency – Emergency releases are quick fixes to repair unexpected problems or temporary measures to prevent the interruption of critical services.

    General software Release – Not a valid type of software release.

    Reference:

    CISA review manual 2014 Page number 244

  10. As an IS auditor it is very important to understand software release management process. Which of the following software release normally contains small enhancements and fixes?

    • Major software Release
    • Minor software Release
    • Emergency software release
    • General software Release
    Explanation:

    Minor releases incorporate a number of fixes for known problems into the baseline, or trusted state, of an item. Minor releases usually increment the version number at the first decimal place. For example, version 6.10 would change to version 6.20.

    For CISA exam you should know below information about software release management:

    Software Release Management is the process of ensuring releases can be reliably planned, scheduled and successfully transitioned (deployed) to Test and Live Environments. Software Release Management is not just about “automating the path to production” although that is certainly an important part. It also about adopting a holistic view of application changes, using the “Release” as the container to ensure that changes are packaged, released and tested in a repeatable and controlled manner. Release Management is often likened to the conductor of an orchestra, with the individual changes to be implemented the various instruments within it. Software Release Management is intrinsically linked with the more well understood and adopted Software Change and Configuration Management disciplines.

    Software Release management is a process through which software is made available to user. Each update or upgrade of a Configuration Item is referred to as a release.

    There are three levels of releases. These levels related to releasing hardware or software into your IT infrastructure. Some may be a single change, others may implement many changes at a time.
    Major – A major release usually introduces new capabilities or functions. Major releases may accumulate all the changes from previous minor releases. Major releases advance the version number by a full increment, for example, from version 5.70 to version 6.
    Minor – Minor releases incorporate a number of fixes for known problems into the baseline, or trusted state, of an item. Minor releases usually increment the version number at the first decimal place. For example, version 6.10 would change to version 6.20.

    Emergency – Emergency releases are quick fixes to repair unexpected problems or temporary measures to prevent the interruption of critical services.

    The following were incorrect answers:
    Major – A major release usually introduces new capabilities or functions. Major releases may accumulate all the changes from previous minor releases. Major releases advance the version number by a full increment, for example, from version 5.70 to version 6.

    Emergency – Emergency releases are quick fixes to repair unexpected problems or temporary measures to prevent the interruption of critical services.

    General software Release – Not a valid type of software release.

    Reference:
    CISA review manual 2014 Page number 244

  11. In which of the following database model is the data organized into a tree-like structure, implying a single parent for each record?

    • Hierarchical database model
    • Network database model
    • Relational database model
    • Object-relational database model
    Explanation:

    In a hierarchical model, data is organized into a tree-like structure, implying a single parent for each record. A sort field keeps sibling records in a particular order.

    For your exam you should know below information about database models:

    A database model is a type of data model that determines the logical structure of a database and fundamentally determines in which manner data can be stored, organized, and manipulated. The most popular example of a database model is the relational model, which uses a table-based format.

    Common logical data models for databases include:
    Hierarchical database model
    Network model
    Relational model
    Object-relational database models

    Hierarchical database model
    In a hierarchical model, data is organized into a tree-like structure, implying a single parent for each record. A sort field keeps sibling records in a particular order. Hierarchical structures were widely used in the early mainframe database management systems, such as the Information Management System (IMS) by IBM, and now describe the structure of XML documents. This structure allows one one-to-many relationship between two types of data. This structure is very efficient to describe many relationships in the real world; recipes, table of contents, ordering of paragraphs/verses, any nested and sorted information.

    This hierarchy is used as the physical order of records in storage. Record access is done by navigating through the data structure using pointers combined with sequential accessing. Because of this, the hierarchical structure is inefficient for certain database operations when a full path (as opposed to upward link and sort field) is not also included for each record. Such limitations have been compensated for in later IMS versions by additional logical hierarchies imposed on the base physical hierarchy.

    Hierarchical database model

    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q11 042
    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q11 042

    Network database model
    The network model expands upon the hierarchical structure, allowing many-to-many relationships in a tree-like structure that allows multiple parents. It was the most popular before being replaced by the relational model, and is defined by the CODASYL specification.

    The network model organizes data using two fundamental concepts, called records and sets. Records contain fields (which may be organized hierarchically, as in the programming language COBOL). Sets (not to be confused with mathematical sets) define one-to-many[disambiguation needed] relationships between records: one owner, many members. A record may be an owner in any number of sets, and a member in any number of sets.

    A set consists of circular linked lists where one record type, the set owner or parent, appears once in each circle, and a second record type, the subordinate or child, may appear multiple times in each circle. In this way a hierarchy may be established between any two record types, e.g., type A is the owner of B. At the same time another set may be defined where B is the owner of A. Thus all the sets comprise a general directed graph (ownership defines a direction), or network construct. Access to records is either sequential (usually in each record type) or by navigation in the circular linked lists.

    The network model is able to represent redundancy in data more efficiently than in the hierarchical model, and there can be more than one path from an ancestor node to a descendant. The operations of the network model are navigational in style: a program maintains a current position, and navigates from one record to another by following the relationships in which the record participates. Records can also be located by supplying key values.
    Network Database model

    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q11 043
    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q11 043

    Relational database model
    In the relational model of a database, all data is represented in terms of tulles, grouped into relations. A database organized in terms of the relational model is a relational database.

    In the relational model, related records are linked together with a “key”.

    The purpose of the relational model is to provide a declarative method for specifying data and queries: users directly state what information the database contains and what information they want from it, and let the database management system software take care of describing data structures for storing the data and retrieval procedures for answering queries.

    Most relational databases use the SQL data definition and query language; these systems implement what can be regarded as an engineering approximation to the relational model. A table in an SQL database schema corresponds to a predicate variable; the contents of a table to a relation; key constraints, other constraints, and SQL queries correspond to predicates. However, SQL databases, including DB2, deviate from the relational model in many details, and Cod fiercely argued against deviations that compromise the original principles.
    Relational database model

    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q11 044
    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q11 044

    Object-relational database Model
    An object-relational database (ORD), or object-relational database management system (ORDBMS), is a database management system (DBMS) similar to a relational database, but with an object-oriented database model: objects, classes and inheritance are directly supported in database schemas and in the query language. In addition, just as with pure relational systems, it supports extension of the data model with custom data-types and methods.

    Example of an object-oriented database model
    An object-relational database can be said to provide a middle ground between relational databases and object-oriented databases (OODBMS). In object-relational databases, the approach is essentially that of relational databases: the data resides in the database and is manipulated collectively with queries in a query language; at the other extreme are OODBMSes in which the database is essentially a persistent object store for software written in an object-oriented programming language, with a programming API for storing and retrieving objects, and little or no specific support for querying.

    The following were incorrect answers:
    Network model-The network model expands upon the hierarchical structure, allowing many-to-many relationships in a tree-like structure that allows multiple parents.
    Relational model- In the relational model of a database, all data is represented in terms of tulles, grouped into relations. A database organized in terms of the relational model is a relational database. In the relational model, related records are linked together with a “key”.
    Object-relational database models- An object-relational database can be said to provide a middle ground between relational databases and object-oriented databases (OODBMS). In object-relational databases, the approach is essentially that of relational databases: the data resides in the database and is manipulated collectively with queries in a query language; at the other extreme are OODBMSes in which the database is essentially a persistent object store for software written in an object-oriented programming language, with a programming API for storing and retrieving objects, and little or no specific support for querying.

    Reference:

    CISA review manual 2014 Page number 254

  12. Which of the following database model allow many-to-many relationships in a tree-like structure that allows multiple parents?

    • Hierarchical database model
    • Network database model
    • Relational database model
    • Object-relational database model
    Explanation:

    Network database model-The network model expands upon the hierarchical structure, allowing many-to-many relationships in a tree-like structure that allows multiple parents.

    For your exam you should know below information about database models:

    A database model is a type of data model that determines the logical structure of a database and fundamentally determines in which manner data can be stored, organized, and manipulated. The most popular example of a database model is the relational model, which uses a table-based format.

    Common logical data models for databases include:
    Hierarchical database model
    Network model
    Relational model
    Object-relational database models

    Hierarchical database model
    In a hierarchical model, data is organized into a tree-like structure, implying a single parent for each record. A sort field keeps sibling records in a particular order. Hierarchical structures were widely used in the early mainframe database management systems, such as the Information Management System (IMS) by IBM, and now describe the structure of XML documents. This structure allows one one-to-many relationship between two types of data. This structure is very efficient to describe many relationships in the real world; recipes, table of contents, ordering of paragraphs/verses, any nested and sorted information.

    This hierarchy is used as the physical order of records in storage. Record access is done by navigating through the data structure using pointers combined with sequential accessing. Because of this, the hierarchical structure is inefficient for certain database operations when a full path (as opposed to upward link and sort field) is not also included for each record. Such limitations have been compensated for in later IMS versions by additional logical hierarchies imposed on the base physical hierarchy.

    Hierarchical database model

    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q12 045
    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q12 045

    Network database model
    The network model expands upon the hierarchical structure, allowing many-to-many relationships in a tree-like structure that allows multiple parents. It was the most popular before being replaced by the relational model, and is defined by the CODASYL specification.

    The network model organizes data using two fundamental concepts, called records and sets. Records contain fields (which may be organized hierarchically, as in the programming language COBOL). Sets (not to be confused with mathematical sets) define one-to-many[disambiguation needed] relationships between records: one owner, many members. A record may be an owner in any number of sets, and a member in any number of sets.

    A set consists of circular linked lists where one record type, the set owner or parent, appears once in each circle, and a second record type, the subordinate or child, may appear multiple times in each circle. In this way a hierarchy may be established between any two record types, e.g., type A is the owner of B. At the same time another set may be defined where B is the owner of A. Thus all the sets comprise a general directed graph (ownership defines a direction), or network construct. Access to records is either sequential (usually in each record type) or by navigation in the circular linked lists.

    The network model is able to represent redundancy in data more efficiently than in the hierarchical model, and there can be more than one path from an ancestor node to a descendant. The operations of the network model are navigational in style: a program maintains a current position, and navigates from one record to another by following the relationships in which the record participates. Records can also be located by supplying key values.
    Network Database model

    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q12 046
    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q12 046

    Relational database model
    In the relational model of a database, all data is represented in terms of tulles, grouped into relations. A database organized in terms of the relational model is a relational database.

    In the relational model, related records are linked together with a “key”.

    The purpose of the relational model is to provide a declarative method for specifying data and queries: users directly state what information the database contains and what information they want from it, and let the database management system software take care of describing data structures for storing the data and retrieval procedures for answering queries.

    Most relational databases use the SQL data definition and query language; these systems implement what can be regarded as an engineering approximation to the relational model. A table in an SQL database schema corresponds to a predicate variable; the contents of a table to a relation; key constraints, other constraints, and SQL queries correspond to predicates. However, SQL databases, including DB2, deviate from the relational model in many details, and Cod fiercely argued against deviations that compromise the original principles.
    Relational database model

    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q12 047
    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q12 047

    Object-relational database Model
    An object-relational database (ORD), or object-relational database management system (ORDBMS), is a database management system (DBMS) similar to a relational database, but with an object-oriented database model: objects, classes and inheritance are directly supported in database schemas and in the query language. In addition, just as with pure relational systems, it supports extension of the data model with custom data-types and methods.
    Example of an object-oriented database model
    An object-relational database can be said to provide a middle ground between relational databases and object-oriented databases (OODBMS). In object-relational databases, the approach is essentially that of relational databases: the data resides in the database and is manipulated collectively with queries in a query language; at the other extreme are OODBMSes in which the database is essentially a persistent object store for software written in an object-oriented programming language, with a programming API for storing and retrieving objects, and little or no specific support for querying.

    The following were incorrect answers:
    Hierarchical database model – In a hierarchical model, data is organized into a tree-like structure, implying a single parent for each record. A sort field keeps sibling records in a particular order.
    Relational model- In the relational model of a database, all data is represented in terms of tulles, grouped into relations. A database organized in terms of the relational model is a relational database. In the relational model, related records are linked together with a “key”.
    Object-relational database models- An object-relational database can be said to provide a middle ground between relational databases and object-oriented databases (OODBMS). In object-relational databases, the approach is essentially that of relational databases: the data resides in the database and is manipulated collectively with queries in a query language; at the other extreme are OODBMSes in which the database is essentially a persistent object store for software written in an object-oriented programming language, with a programming API for storing and retrieving objects, and little or no specific support for querying.

    Reference:
    CISA review manual 2014 Page number 254

  13. In which of the following database models is the data represented in terms of tulles and grouped into relations?

    • Hierarchical database model
    • Network database model
    • Relational database model
    • Object-relational database model
    Explanation:

    In the relational model of a database, all data is represented in terms of tulles, grouped into relations. A database organized in terms of the relational model is a relational database.

    For your exam you should know below information about database models:

    A database model is a type of data model that determines the logical structure of a database and fundamentally determines in which manner data can be stored, organized, and manipulated. The most popular example of a database model is the relational model, which uses a table-based format.

    Common logical data models for databases include:
    Hierarchical database model
    Network model
    Relational model
    Object-relational database models

    Hierarchical database model
    In a hierarchical model, data is organized into a tree-like structure, implying a single parent for each record. A sort field keeps sibling records in a particular order. Hierarchical structures were widely used in the early mainframe database management systems, such as the Information Management System (IMS) by IBM, and now describe the structure of XML documents. This structure allows one one-to-many relationship between two types of data. This structure is very efficient to describe many relationships in the real world; recipes, table of contents, ordering of paragraphs/verses, any nested and sorted information.

    This hierarchy is used as the physical order of records in storage. Record access is done by navigating through the data structure using pointers combined with sequential accessing. Because of this, the hierarchical structure is inefficient for certain database operations when a full path (as opposed to upward link and sort field) is not also included for each record. Such limitations have been compensated for in later IMS versions by additional logical hierarchies imposed on the base physical hierarchy.

    Hierarchical database model

    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q13 048
    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q13 048

    Network database model
    The network model expands upon the hierarchical structure, allowing many-to-many relationships in a tree-like structure that allows multiple parents. It was the most popular before being replaced by the relational model, and is defined by the CODASYL specification.

    The network model organizes data using two fundamental concepts, called records and sets. Records contain fields (which may be organized hierarchically, as in the programming language COBOL). Sets (not to be confused with mathematical sets) define one-to-many[disambiguation needed] relationships between records: one owner, many members. A record may be an owner in any number of sets, and a member in any number of sets.

    A set consists of circular linked lists where one record type, the set owner or parent, appears once in each circle, and a second record type, the subordinate or child, may appear multiple times in each circle. In this way a hierarchy may be established between any two record types, e.g., type A is the owner of B. At the same time another set may be defined where B is the owner of A. Thus all the sets comprise a general directed graph (ownership defines a direction), or network construct. Access to records is either sequential (usually in each record type) or by navigation in the circular linked lists.

    The network model is able to represent redundancy in data more efficiently than in the hierarchical model, and there can be more than one path from an ancestor node to a descendant. The operations of the network model are navigational in style: a program maintains a current position, and navigates from one record to another by following the relationships in which the record participates. Records can also be located by supplying key values.
    Network Database model

    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q13 049
    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q13 049

    Relational database model
    In the relational model of a database, all data is represented in terms of tulles, grouped into relations. A database organized in terms of the relational model is a relational database.

    In the relational model, related records are linked together with a “key”.

    The purpose of the relational model is to provide a declarative method for specifying data and queries: users directly state what information the database contains and what information they want from it, and let the database management system software take care of describing data structures for storing the data and retrieval procedures for answering queries.

    Most relational databases use the SQL data definition and query language; these systems implement what can be regarded as an engineering approximation to the relational model. A table in an SQL database schema corresponds to a predicate variable; the contents of a table to a relation; key constraints, other constraints, and SQL queries correspond to predicates. However, SQL databases, including DB2, deviate from the relational model in many details, and Cod fiercely argued against deviations that compromise the original principles.
    Relational database model

    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q13 050
    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q13 050

    Object-relational database Model
    An object-relational database (ORD), or object-relational database management system (ORDBMS), is a database management system (DBMS) similar to a relational database, but with an object-oriented database model: objects, classes and inheritance are directly supported in database schemas and in the query language. In addition, just as with pure relational systems, it supports extension of the data model with custom data-types and methods.
    Example of an object-oriented database model
    An object-relational database can be said to provide a middle ground between relational databases and object-oriented databases (OODBMS). In object-relational databases, the approach is essentially that of relational databases: the data resides in the database and is manipulated collectively with queries in a query language; at the other extreme are OODBMSes in which the database is essentially a persistent object store for software written in an object-oriented programming language, with a programming API for storing and retrieving objects, and little or no specific support for querying.

    The following were incorrect answers:
    Hierarchical database model – In a hierarchical model, data is organized into a tree-like structure, implying a single parent for each record. A sort field keeps sibling records in a particular order.
    Network database model-The network model expands upon the hierarchical structure, allowing many-to-many relationships in a tree-like structure that allows multiple parents.
    Object-relational database models- An object-relational database can be said to provide a middle ground between relational databases and object-oriented databases (OODBMS). In object-relational databases, the approach is essentially that of relational databases: the data resides in the database and is manipulated collectively with queries in a query language; at the other extreme are OODBMSes in which the database is essentially a persistent object store for software written in an object-oriented programming language, with a programming API for storing and retrieving objects, and little or no specific support for querying.

    Reference:

    CISA review manual 2014 Page number 254

  14. Which of the following is a type of computer network used for data transmission among devices such as computers, telephones and personal digital assistants?

    • LAN
    • WAN
    • SAN
    • PAN
  15. Which of the following type of a computer network covers a limited area such as a home, office or campus?

    • LAN
    • WAN
    • SAN
    • PAN
    Explanation:

    A local area network (LAN) is a computer network that interconnects computers within a limited area such as a home, school, computer laboratory, or office building using network media.

    For your exam you should know below information about computer networks:

    Local Area Network (LAN)

    A local area network (LAN) is a computer network that interconnects computers within a limited area such as a home, school, computer laboratory, or office building using network media.

    Local Area Network

    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q15 051
    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q15 051

    Wide Area Network
    A wide area network (WAN) is a network that covers a broad area (i.e., any telecommunications network that links across metropolitan, regional, national or international boundaries) using leased telecommunication lines.

    Wide Area Network

    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q15 052
    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q15 052

    Metropolitan Area Network
    A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a computer network in which two or more computers or communicating devices or networks which are geographically separated but in same metropolitan city and are connected to each other are said to be connected on MAN. Metropolitan limits are determined by local municipal corporations; the larger the city, the bigger the MAN, the smaller a metro city, smaller the MAN

    Metropolitan Area Network

    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q15 053
    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q15 053

    Personal Area Network
    A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network used for data transmission among devices such as computers, telephones and personal digital assistants. PANs can be used for communication among the personal devices themselves (intrapersonal communication), or for connecting to a higher level network and the Internet (an uplink).

    Personal Area Network

    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q15 054
    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q15 054

    Storage Area Network
    A storage area network (SAN) is a dedicated network that provides access to consolidated, block level data storage. SANs are primarily used to enhance storage devices, such as disk arrays, tape libraries, and optical jukeboxes, accessible to servers so that the devices appear like locally attached devices to the operating system. A SAN typically has its own network of storage devices that are generally not accessible through the local area network (LAN) by other devices.

    Storage Area Network

    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q15 055
    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q15 055

    The following were incorrect answers:
    PAN – A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network used for data transmission among devices such as computers, telephones and personal digital assistants. PANs can be used for communication among the personal devices themselves (intrapersonal communication), or for connecting to a higher level network and the Internet (an uplink).
    WAN – A wide area network (WAN) is a network that covers a broad area (i.e., any telecommunications network that links across metropolitan, regional, national or international boundaries) using leased telecommunication lines.
    SAN – A storage area network (SAN) is a dedicated network that provides access to consolidated, block level data storage. SANs are primarily used to enhance storage devices, such as disk arrays, tape libraries, and optical jukeboxes, accessible to servers so that the devices appear like locally attached devices to the operating system. A SAN typically has its own network of storage devices that are generally not accessible through the local area network (LAN) by other devices.

    Reference:

    CISA review manual 2014 Page number 258

  16. Which of the following type of a computer network covers a broad area such as city, region, nation or international link?

    • LAN
    • WAN
    • SAN
    • PAN
    Explanation:

    A wide area network (WAN) is a network that covers a broad area (i.e., any telecommunications network that links across metropolitan, regional, national or international boundaries) using leased telecommunication lines.

    For your exam you should know below information about computer networks:

    Local Area Network (LAN)
    A local area network (LAN) is a computer network that interconnects computers within a limited area such as a home, school, computer laboratory, or office building using network media.

    Local Area Network

    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q16 056
    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q16 056

    Wide Area Network
    A wide area network (WAN) is a network that covers a broad area (i.e., any telecommunications network that links across metropolitan, regional, national or international boundaries) using leased telecommunication lines.

    Wide Area Network

    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q16 057
    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q16 057

    Metropolitan Area Network
    A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a computer network in which two or more computers or communicating devices or networks which are geographically separated but in same metropolitan city and are connected to each other are said to be connected on MAN. Metropolitan limits are determined by local municipal corporations; the larger the city, the bigger the MAN, the smaller a metro city, smaller the MAN

    Metropolitan Area Network

    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q16 058
    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q16 058

    Personal Area Network
    A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network used for data transmission among devices such as computers, telephones and personal digital assistants. PANs can be used for communication among the personal devices themselves (intrapersonal communication), or for connecting to a higher level network and the Internet (an uplink).

    Personal Area Network

    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q16 059
    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q16 059

    Storage Area Network
    A storage area network (SAN) is a dedicated network that provides access to consolidated, block level data storage. SANs are primarily used to enhance storage devices, such as disk arrays, tape libraries, and optical jukeboxes, accessible to servers so that the devices appear like locally attached devices to the operating system. A SAN typically has its own network of storage devices that are generally not accessible through the local area network (LAN) by other devices.

    Storage Area Network

    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q16 060
    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q16 060

    The following were incorrect answers:
    PAN – A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network used for data transmission among devices such as computers, telephones and personal digital assistants. PANs can be used for communication among the personal devices themselves (intrapersonal communication), or for connecting to a higher level network and the Internet (an uplink).

    LAN – A local area network (LAN) is a computer network that interconnects computers within a limited area such as a home, school, computer laboratory, or office building using network media.

    SAN – A storage area network (SAN) is a dedicated network that provides access to consolidated, block level data storage. SANs are primarily used to enhance storage devices, such as disk arrays, tape libraries, and optical jukeboxes, accessible to servers so that the devices appear like locally attached devices to the operating system. A SAN typically has its own network of storage devices that are generally not accessible through the local area network (LAN) by other devices.

    Reference:

    CISA review manual 2014 Page number 258

  17. Which of the following type of a computer network is a WAN that are limited to a city?

    • LAN
    • MAN
    • SAN
    • PAN
    Explanation:

    MAN – A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a computer network in which two or more computers or communicating devices or networks which are geographically separated but in same metropolitan city and are connected to each other are said to be connected on MAN. Metropolitan limits are determined by local municipal corporations; the larger the city, the bigger the MAN, the smaller a metro city, smaller the MAN.

    For your exam you should know below information about computer networks:

    Local Area Network (LAN)
    A local area network (LAN) is a computer network that interconnects computers within a limited area such as a home, school, computer laboratory, or office building using network media.

    Local Area Network

    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q17 061
    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q17 061

    Wide Area Network
    A wide area network (WAN) is a network that covers a broad area (i.e., any telecommunications network that links across metropolitan, regional, national or international boundaries) using leased telecommunication lines.

    Wide Area Network

    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q17 062
    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q17 062

    Metropolitan Area Network
    A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a computer network in which two or more computers or communicating devices or networks which are geographically separated but in same metropolitan city and are connected to each other are said to be connected on MAN. Metropolitan limits are determined by local municipal corporations; the larger the city, the bigger the MAN, the smaller a metro city, smaller the MAN

    Metropolitan Area Network

    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q17 063
    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q17 063

    Personal Area Network
    A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network used for data transmission among devices such as computers, telephones and personal digital assistants. PANs can be used for communication among the personal devices themselves (intrapersonal communication), or for connecting to a higher level network and the Internet (an uplink).

    Personal Area Network

    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q17 064
    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q17 064

    Storage Area Network
    A storage area network (SAN) is a dedicated network that provides access to consolidated, block level data storage. SANs are primarily used to enhance storage devices, such as disk arrays, tape libraries, and optical jukeboxes, accessible to servers so that the devices appear like locally attached devices to the operating system. A SAN typically has its own network of storage devices that are generally not accessible through the local area network (LAN) by other devices.

    Storage Area Network

    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q17 065
    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q17 065

    The following were incorrect answers:
    PAN – A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network used for data transmission among devices such as computers, telephones and personal digital assistants. PANs can be used for communication among the personal devices themselves (intrapersonal communication), or for connecting to a higher level network and the Internet (an uplink).

    LAN – A local area network (LAN) is a computer network that interconnects computers within a limited area such as a home, school, computer laboratory, or office building using network media.

    SAN – A storage area network (SAN) is a dedicated network that provides access to consolidated, block level data storage. SANs are primarily used to enhance storage devices, such as disk arrays, tape libraries, and optical jukeboxes, accessible to servers so that the devices appear like locally attached devices to the operating system. A SAN typically has its own network of storage devices that are generally not accessible through the local area network (LAN) by other devices.

    Reference:

    CISA review manual 2014 Page number 258

  18. Which of the following type of a computer network are variation of LAN and are dedicated to connecting storage devices to servers and other computing devices?

    • LAN
    • MAN
    • SAN
    • PAN
    Explanation:

    A storage area network (SAN) is a dedicated network that provides access to consolidated, block level data storage. SANs are primarily used to enhance storage devices, such as disk arrays, tape libraries, and optical jukeboxes, accessible to servers so that the devices appear like locally attached devices to the operating system. A SAN typically has its own network of storage devices that are generally not accessible through the local area network (LAN) by other devices.

    For your exam you should know below information about computer networks:

    Local Area Network (LAN)
    A local area network (LAN) is a computer network that interconnects computers within a limited area such as a home, school, computer laboratory, or office building using network media.

    Local Area Network

    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q18 066
    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q18 066

    Wide Area Network
    A wide area network (WAN) is a network that covers a broad area (i.e., any telecommunications network that links across metropolitan, regional, national or international boundaries) using leased telecommunication lines.

    Wide Area Network

    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q18 067
    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q18 067

    Metropolitan Area Network
    A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a computer network in which two or more computers or communicating devices or networks which are geographically separated but in same metropolitan city and are connected to each other are said to be connected on MAN. Metropolitan limits are determined by local municipal corporations; the larger the city, the bigger the MAN, the smaller a metro city, smaller the MAN

    Metropolitan Area Network

    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q18 068
    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q18 068

    Personal Area Network
    A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network used for data transmission among devices such as computers, telephones and personal digital assistants. PANs can be used for communication among the personal devices themselves (intrapersonal communication), or for connecting to a higher level network and the Internet (an uplink).

    Personal Area Network

    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q18 069
    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q18 069

    Storage Area Network
    A storage area network (SAN) is a dedicated network that provides access to consolidated, block level data storage. SANs are primarily used to enhance storage devices, such as disk arrays, tape libraries, and optical jukeboxes, accessible to servers so that the devices appear like locally attached devices to the operating system. A SAN typically has its own network of storage devices that are generally not accessible through the local area network (LAN) by other devices.

    Storage Area Network

    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q18 070
    CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Part 66 Q18 070

    The following were incorrect answers:
    PAN – A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network used for data transmission among devices such as computers, telephones and personal digital assistants. PANs can be used for communication among the personal devices themselves (intrapersonal communication), or for connecting to a higher level network and the Internet (an uplink).

    LAN – A local area network (LAN) is a computer network that interconnects computers within a limited area such as a home, school, computer laboratory, or office building using network media.

    MAN – A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a computer network in which two or more computers or communicating devices or networks which are geographically separated but in same metropolitan city and are connected to each other are said to be connected on MAN. Metropolitan limits are determined by local municipal corporations; the larger the city, the bigger the MAN, the smaller a metro city, smaller the MAN

    Reference:

    CISA review manual 2014 Page number 258

  19. Which of the following type of network service maps Domain Names to network IP addresses or network IP addresses to Domain Names?

    • DHCP
    • DNS
    • Directory Service
    • Network Management
    Explanation:

    Domain Name System(DNS) – Translates the names of network nodes into network IP address.

    For your exam you should know below information about network services:

    In computer networking, a network service is an application running at the network application layer and above, that provides data storage, manipulation, presentation, communication or other capability which is often implemented using a client-server or peer-to-peer architecture based on application layer network protocols.
    Each service is usually provided by a server component running on one or more computers (often a dedicated server computer offering multiple services) and accessed via a network by client components running on other devices. However, the client and server components can both be run on the same machine.
    Clients and servers will often have a user interface, and sometimes other hardware associated with them.

    Different types of network services are as follows:
    Network File System – Network File System (NFS) is a distributed file system protocol originally developed by Sun Microsystems in 1984, allowing a user on a client computer to access files over a network much like local storage is accessed.
    Remote Access Service – Remote Access Services (RAS) refers to any combination of hardware and software to enable the remote access tools or information that typically reside on a network of IT devices.
    Directory Services – A directory service is the software system that stores, organizes and provides access to information in a directory. In software engineering, a directory is a map between names and values. It allows the lookup of values given a name, similar to a dictionary. As a word in a dictionary may have multiple definitions, in a directory, a name may be associated with multiple, different pieces of information. Likewise, as a word may have different parts of speech and different definitions, a name in a directory may have many different types of data.
    Network Management – In computer networks, network management refers to the activities, methods, procedures, and tools that pertain to the operation, administration, maintenance, and provisioning of networked systems. Network management is essential to command and control practices and is generally carried out of a network operations center.
    Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) – The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a standardized networking protocol used on Internet Protocol (IP) networks for dynamically distributing network configuration parameters, such as IP addresses for interfaces and services. With DHCP, computers request IP addresses and networking parameters automatically from a DHCP server, reducing the need for a network administrator or a user to configure these settings manually.
    Email service – Provides the ability, through a terminal or PC connected to a communication network, to send an entrusted message to another individual or group of people.
    Print Services – Provide the ability, typically through a print server on a network, to manage and execute print request services from other devices on the network
    Domain Name System(DNS) – Translates the names of network nodes into network IP address.

    The following were incorrect answers:
    Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) – The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a standardized networking protocol used on Internet Protocol (IP) networks for dynamically distributing network configuration parameters, such as IP addresses for interfaces and services. With DHCP, computers request IP addresses and networking parameters automatically from a DHCP server, reducing the need for a network administrator or a user to configure these settings manually.
    Directory Services – A directory service is the software system that stores, organizes and provides access to information in a directory. In software engineering, a directory is a map between names and values. It allows the lookup of values given a name, similar to a dictionary. As a word in a dictionary may have multiple definitions, in a directory, a name may be associated with multiple, different pieces of information. Likewise, as a word may have different parts of speech and different definitions, a name in a directory may have many different types of data.
    Network Management – In computer networks, network management refers to the activities, methods, procedures, and tools that pertain to the operation, administration, maintenance, and provisioning of networked systems. Network management is essential to command and control practices and is generally carried out of a network operations center.

    Reference:

    CISA review manual 2014 Page number 258

  20. Which of the following type of network service stores information about the various resources in a central database on a network and help network devices locate services?

    • DHCP
    • DNS
    • Directory Service
    • Network Management
    Explanation:

    A directory service is the software system that stores, organizes and provides access to information in a directory. In software engineering, a directory is a map between names and values. It allows the lookup of values given a name, similar to a dictionary. As a word in a dictionary may have multiple definitions, in a directory, a name may be associated with multiple, different pieces of information. Likewise, as a word may have different parts of speech and different definitions, a name in a directory may have many different types of data.

    For your exam you should know below information about network services:

    In computer networking, a network service is an application running at the network application layer and above, that provides data storage, manipulation, presentation, communication or other capability which is often implemented using a client-server or peer-to-peer architecture based on application layer network protocols.
    Each service is usually provided by a server component running on one or more computers (often a dedicated server computer offering multiple services) and accessed via a network by client components running on other devices. However, the client and server components can both be run on the same machine.
    Clients and servers will often have a user interface, and sometimes other hardware associated with them.

    Different types of network services are as follows:
    Network File System – Network File System (NFS) is a distributed file system protocol originally developed by Sun Microsystems in 1984, allowing a user on a client computer to access files over a network much like local storage is accessed.
    Remote Access Service – Remote Access Services (RAS) refers to any combination of hardware and software to enable the remote access tools or information that typically reside on a network of IT devices.
    Directory Services – A directory service is the software system that stores, organizes and provides access to information in a directory. In software engineering, a directory is a map between names and values. It allows the lookup of values given a name, similar to a dictionary. As a word in a dictionary may have multiple definitions, in a directory, a name may be associated with multiple, different pieces of information. Likewise, as a word may have different parts of speech and different definitions, a name in a directory may have many different types of data.
    Network Management – In computer networks, network management refers to the activities, methods, procedures, and tools that pertain to the operation, administration, maintenance, and provisioning of networked systems. Network management is essential to command and control practices and is generally carried out of a network operations center.
    Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) – The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a standardized networking protocol used on Internet Protocol (IP) networks for dynamically distributing network configuration parameters, such as IP addresses for interfaces and services. With DHCP, computers request IP addresses and networking parameters automatically from a DHCP server, reducing the need for a network administrator or a user to configure these settings manually.
    Email service – Provides the ability, through a terminal or PC connected to a communication network, to send an entrusted message to another individual or group of people.
    Print Services – Provide the ability, typically through a print server on a network, to manage and execute print request services from other devices on the network
    Domain Name System(DNS) – Translates the names of network nodes into network IP address.

    The following were incorrect answers:
    Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) – The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a standardized networking protocol used on Internet Protocol (IP) networks for dynamically distributing network configuration parameters, such as IP addresses for interfaces and services. With DHCP, computers request IP addresses and networking parameters automatically from a DHCP server, reducing the need for a network administrator or a user to configure these settings manually.
    Domain Name System(DNS) – Translates the names of network nodes into network IP address.
    Network Management – In computer networks, network management refers to the activities, methods, procedures, and tools that pertain to the operation, administration, maintenance, and provisioning of networked systems. Network management is essential to command and control practices and is generally carried out of a network operations center.

    Reference:
    CISA review manual 2014 Page number 258